The study of objects of plant and animal origin is an important urgent task, since the diversity of flora and fauna surrounds a person in a daily activities. The relevant researches are carried out within the framework of biological expertise. Forensic experts, possessing special knowledge, make the following researches:
- leaves, stems, flowers, hay, straw, bark, wood, roots, fruits, seeds, grain, spores, pollen, etc;
- derivatives of animal skin (hair, feathers, scale etc);
- products of the processing of plant and animal organisms (feed for animals and birds, flour, pieces of fur and leather, etc);
products of vital activity of plant and animal organisms (honey, gum, excrement, etc).
The main tasks that biological expertise determines are the establishment of the belonging of animal and plant species to a particular biological genus, family or species as well as identification of micro-objects of the indicated origin in any mass or on the objects of the scene (objects-carriers); the establishing of a generic group belonging to several comparable objects; the establishing the belonging objects of biological origin to one whole; the determination of biological characteristics of the state of the object, including cereals and legumes (stages of the organism’s development, the causes and time of changes in its state, mechanism of damage etc); the establishment of the belonging of plants origin to narcotic drugs.
The instruction of the Ministry of Ukraine on the appointment and conduct of forensic expertise and expert researches to the indicative list of issues to be resolved by biological expertise include the following items:
What is the nature of this object? If it is of biological origin, then what is its taxonomic affiliation?
Is there a micro-object (share) of biological origin on the object-carrier (it is indicated in which)? If so, what is their taxonomic affiliation?
Do have a given mass (for example, grain in a bag seized from a person) and samples seized in a particular place (for example, samples of grain from a certain storage), a general generic (group) affiliation?
Are the samples of grain (leguminous) crops provided for research consistent with the requirements of the National State Standard (DSTU): the mass fraction of protein; the mass fraction of gluten; quality of gluten; number of fall; humidity; garbage and grain impurities; the blue-eyed mold of corn; the mass of 1000 seeds (grains) (nature)?
Are the samples of grain (leguminous) crops given for research consistent with the terms of the supply contract?
Are these objects parts of one whole (for example, branches and trunk, two parts of a plant leaf, etc)?
Could there have been some changes in the development of the plant (animal) object (or could the plant grow at a certain time to its present size, could an insect for a certain time to reach the stage of development in which it was discovered, etc)?
What is the prescription of the corpse for the stage of development of insects (maggots)?
Is there any hair found on the object-carrier (it is indicated on which) the hair of a person (animal)? If it is the hair of an animal, does it have general generic (group) affiliation to the hair of the individual?
What is the age of a plant, its parts?
Does this plant (crushed particles of a plant) belong to narcotics substances? If so, what is its taxonomic affiliation?
Have samples of drugs been previously made up one mass?
Do these samples of narcotic drugs have a generic (group) affiliation (by the way of preparation, the place of cultivation etc)?
Within the framework of the biological expertise, it is also established that the fur belongs to a certain species, including the composition of finished products – fur coats, sheepskin coats, etc.
Citizens should follow certain rules, when preparing materials for research.
- If the investigated objects and objects for comparative research have large volumes or masses, they are sent to the expert in the form of samples.
- Samples of loose masses (grain, flour, etc) are selected as average samples. Selecting hair from the animals hair coverage, they should be pulled (combed out) of 50-100 hair from various parts of the body (back, neck, legs, sides, belly and, in particular, in the area of the damaged part of the body).
- If hay or straw is examined, then their samples should have a mass within 0.5 – 1 kg. Selected samples are wrapped in paper, without crushing or bending the stems.
- Place on the carrier objects, where stains or traces of biological origin, should be covered with clean paper, fixing its edges on the object. In the same manner should act when traces are not found during the investigation, but their presence in a certain place is assumed.
- If the subject-carrier is not available to the expert, it should be given the opportunity to examine the subject or conduct its research on the location.
More detailed information on the conduct of a certain type of expertise; you can always contact the expert of Kyiv Scientific Research Institute of Forensic Expertise. In addition, a full list of different types of research can be found in the section “Expert activity”.