Ingineering and Transport Examinations

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RESEARCH OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES AND MECHANISM OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

Establishing a mechanism for accident and its elements:

  • determination of the vehicle speed, in particular, taking into account traces of braking (skidding), rejection of the vehicle after a collision and damage that the vehicle received in a collision). The speed of movement of vehicles, taking into account damage, can be determined using software systems for studying the mechanism of road accidents, recommended for use in expert practice
  • determination of the permissible speed of the vehicle under certain conditions (on a rounding of the road, in conditions of visibility of the road)
  • determination of the distance of the vehicle, pedestrians and other objects from the accident scene at certain intervals
  • determination of the time for the vehicle to pass certain sections of the route
  • establishing a safe distance or interval in certain road conditions
  • establishing the technical feasibility of preventing road accidents by braking or maneuvering, based on the provided initial data
  • establishing of breaking and stopping paths and other spatial and dynamic characteristics of the accident.

Regulation and assessment of driver’s actions in terms of technical requirements of the Road Traffic Regulations:

  • stablishing the proper actions of road users in the road situation that developed before the accident, in order to ensure traffic safety;
  • establishing the technical feasibility of preventing road accidents by braking or maneuvering, based on the provided initial data
  • establishing the compliance of the actions of the vehicle driver with the technical requirements of the Road Traffic Regulations
  • establishing a causal relationship between the driver’s actions and the occurrence of an accident.

The indicative list of issues to be resolved

  1. What was the speed of the vehicle at different times of the accident (before the accident, at the time of the collision, crashes, etc.)?
  2. What was the speed of the vehicle before the accident (at the time of the collision), taking into account the damage it received (which received the vehicle) in the collision?
  3. What is the maximum permissible speed of the vehicle under the given visibility of the road (the initial data indicates what was the visibility of the road)?
  4. What is the maximum permissible speed of the vehicle on the curve of the road of the given radius (the radius of the road is indicated in the output data)?
  5. What is the smallest safe distance between vehicles in this road situation?
  6. What is the safest distance between vehicles in a given road situation?
  7. What is the braking and (or) stopping distance of the vehicle at a certain speed of its movement in a given road situation?
  8. How was the driver supposed to act in this traffic situation in accordance with the technical requirements of the Road Traffic Regulations?
  9. Did the driver have the technical ability to prevent a collision from the moment of the danger to traffic (or from the moment of detecting an obstacle to traffic)?
  10. Did the driver’s actions meet the technical requirements of the Road Traffic Regulations?
  11. From a technical point of view, were the actions of the vehicle driver causally related to the occurrence of an accident?
  12. From a technical point of view, were the actions of the vehicle driver causally related to the occurrence of an accident?

Important! This type of examination especially depends on the set of initial data, which is set to solve the questions posed. Thus, it seems that with a slight change in the initial parameters, the conclusions of the examination may change to the opposite.

Generally, the person who appointed the examination provides the output data for the auto-technical examination. According to clauses 1.3, 1.6 of Section II of the Scientific and Methodological Recommendations on the preparation and appointment of forensic examinations and expert research: “The actions of the participants in the event, from which the expert should proceed during the research (output data) … The authority (person) who appointed the expert examination (attracted the expert) does not have the right to demand from the expert that he/she independently selected the initial data on the case for the examination. At the same time, these persons can put questions to the expert about the technical ability (inability) of certain data that is in the case”.<br>The initial data for the auto-technical examination are generally described in clause 1.3 of Section II of the above recommendations. However, for each of the types of road accidents, the initial data have certain specifics. <br>It is advisable to systematize the initial data necessary for the performance of the expert research, according to the elements of the VADS system – “driver – car (vehicle) – road – traffic environment”.

RESEARCH OF TECHNICAL CONDITION OF VEHICLES

The indicative list of tasks

  • establishment of vehicle malfunctions, the reasons for its formation and the time of occurrence (for example, in an accident, or as a result of it or after it), the possibility of detecting a malfunction using the methods of monitoring the technical condition of the vehicle.
  • determining the mechanism of influence of the malfunction on the occurrence and development of the incident.

The indicative list of issues to be resolved

  1. What malfunctions, based on the requirements of the Road Traffic Rules to the technical condition of the vehicle, did the system (mechanism, assembly, unit) of this vehicle have (had)?
  2. Are there any malfunctions in the vehicle under research that could be a technical cause of the accident?
  3. When, relative to the moment of the accident, its occurrence or in the process of its development, did these malfunctions occur?
  4. What is the reason for the failure of this mechanism, system (steering, brake system, etc.) of the vehicle?
  5. Was the driver able to detect the malfunction before the accident?
  6. Did the driver have the technical ability to prevent useful in the presence of this malfunction?
  7. What are the reasons for the failure of the system (mechanism, assembly, unit) of the vehicle -non-maintenance operation, production deficiencies, improper repairs, etc.?

Important! It is advisable to carry out this examination as soon as possible after an accident (to minimize the influence of factors of improper storage).

If an examination of the technical condition of the vehicle is appointed, in the document on the appointment of the examination (involving an expert), it is enough to lay out the plot of the case and the circumstances that relate to the features of the research object, the knowledge of which may be important for the expert, for example, the vehicle was operated after the accident; in what state were the parts (nodes) connected to the parts (nodes) that are being investigated, etc.

At the same time, a meaningful vehicle inspection protocol can significantly affect the quality of the expert conclusion.

The vehicle inspection report must contain the following data: the nature and location of the damage to the vehicle (the description of the damage must be consistently stated according to the location of the latter on the vehicle, starting from the location of the main damage, in particular, in the following order – front, left, rear, right). The presence on the vehicle of traces of contact with the surrounding objects of the vehicle loading; the condition of the working brake system; the condition of the parking brake system; the state of the steering; condition of transmission and chassis elements.

Photos attached to the protocol of inspection of vehicles must be clear, meet the requirements of forensic photography; nodal and detailed photographs of damage to the vehicle must be made in compliance with the requirements of large-scale photography.

Shooting angles are selected in such a way as to provide information about the location of damage on parts of the vehicle: front, rear and both side views of the vehicle are provided. It is also recommended to take pictures with a top view of the vehicle, as they are the most informative. Damage sites are photographed in close-up.

VEHICLE’S PARTS RESEARCH

The indicative list of tasks

  • establishing the reasons for the destruction of vehicle parts (due to defects in manufacturing, operational wear, during an accident, etc.);
  • establishing the time of destruction of a certain part of the vehicle in relation to the moment of the accident.

The indicative list of issues to be resolved

  1. What is the reason for the destruction of the vehicle part provided for research (due to defects in manufacturing, operational wear, excess of permissible loads, etc.)?
  2. Was a certain part of the vehicle destroyed before the accident or was it a consequence of it?

Important! The need for the appointment or execution of this examination arises, as a rule, when, in the case of a study of a certain system or unit of the vehicle, in the course of element-by-element diagnostics, damage to a part is detected, could lead to failure of the system or unit as a whole.
The specified examination, in accordance with the available methodologies, may require a modification of the research object (cutting out fragments, for microscopic examinations, making thin sections, etc.) therefore, the customer must bear this in mind when appointing such an examination.<br>Technical documentation of the manufacturer’s research object is required. In some cases, permission is required to destroy the part during its examination.

TRANSPORT AND TRACE EVIDENCE RESEARCH

The indicative list of tasks

  • determination of the mechanism of damage formation on the vehicle due to its contact interaction
  • establishing the vehicle parts that came into contact at the initial moment of the collision, and the directions of application of deforming forces
  • identification of vehicle parts in contact with a pedestrian (obstacle)
  • establishing the angle of mutual position of the vehicle
  • determining the place of collision or the place of collision with a pedestrian (obstacle)
  • establishing the fact of real estate (or movement) of the vehicle at the moment of collision
  • establishing the features of the movement of the driver and passengers in the car as a result of a collision of a vehicle or collision with an obstacle;
  • establishing the fact that the tracks of the wheels and other protruding parts of the vehicle, as well as parts and parts of a certain vehicle, left at the scene of the accident;
  • identification of vehicle malfunctions, the reasons for their formation and the time of occurrence (for example, in an accident, or as a result of it or after it), the possibility of detecting a malfunction using the methods of monitoring the technical condition of the vehicle;
  • determination of the mechanism of influence of the malfunction on the occurrence and development of the incident.

The indicative list of issues to be resolved

  1. Have certain traces been left at the accident site (indicated which ones) by the running gears (wheels, tires, tracks, etc.) of this vehicle?
  2. What is the vehicle contact mechanism?
  3. What was the relative position of the vehicles during the collision?
  4. What was the relative position of the vehicle and the obstacle (pedestrian) when hitting the last (last) one?
  5. Which vehicle was standing during the collision and which was moving?
  6. At what place of the road there was a collision of vehicles (collision with a pedestrian)?
  7. What is the mechanism of formation of traces on the vehicle (support surface)?
  8. In what direction relative to the trace surface of the vehicle was moving?
  9. What malfunctions, based on the requirements of the Road Traffic Rules to the technical condition of the vehicle, did the system (mechanism, assembly, unit) of this vehicle have (had)?
  10. Are there any malfunctions in the vehicle under investigation that could be a technical cause of an accident?
  11. When, relative to the moment of the accident, its occurrence or in the process of its development, did these malfunctions occur?
  12. What is the reason for the failure of this mechanism, system (steering, brake system, etc.) of the vehicle?
  13. Was the driver able to detect the malfunction before the accident?
  14. Did the driver have the technical ability to prevent useful in the presence of this malfunction?
  15. What are the reasons for the failure of the system (mechanism, assembly, unit) of the vehicle -non-maintenance operation, production shortcomings, improper repairs, etc.?

Important! It is advisable to carry out this examination as soon as possible after an accident (to minimize the influence of factors of improper storage).

If an examination of the technical condition of the vehicle is appointed, in the document on the appointment of the examination (involving an expert), it is enough to lay out the plot of the case and the circumstances that relate to the features of the research object, the knowledge of which may be important for the expert, for example, the vehicle was operated after the accident; in what state were the parts (nodes) connected to the parts (nodes) that are being investigated, etc.

At the same time, a meaningful vehicle inspection protocol can significantly affect the quality of the expert conclusion.

The vehicle inspection report must contain the following data: the nature and location of the damage to the vehicle (the description of the damage must be consistently stated according to the location of the latter on the vehicle, starting from the location of the main damage, in particular, in the following order – front, left, rear, right). The presence on the vehicle of traces of contact with the surrounding objects of the vehicle loading; the condition of the working brake system; the condition of the parking brake system; the state of the steering; condition of transmission and chassis elements.

Photos attached to the protocol of inspection of vehicles must be clear, meet the requirements of forensic photography; nodal and detailed photographs of damage to the vehicle must be made in compliance with the requirements of large-scale photography.

Shooting angles are selected in such a way as to provide information about the location of damage on parts of the vehicle: front, rear and both side views of the vehicle are provided. It is also recommended to take pictures with a top view of the vehicle, as they are the most informative. Damage sites are photographed in close-up.