ELECTRO-TECHNICAL EXAMINATION

General provisions
Electro-technical examination is the process of studying phenomena, processes and material objects that are electrical equipment and electrical equipment, as well as various events related to the action of electric current. This examination relates to engineering research. Electro-technical examination, as its name implies, examines any engineering objects that in one way or another include electrical components. When conducting electro-technical examinations, studies of compliance of equipment, technological processes, facilities with regulatory requirements on electrical engineering and electrical safety are carried out. In addition, during such examinations researches of conformity of the accepted decisions to regulatory requirements concerning the accepted design decisions concerning the electric equipment of objects, cars, etc.

Electro-technical examinations are carried out in order to establish the actual circumstances of the emergency operation of electrical equipment and electrical equipment, events that occurred. These events resulted in death or injury related to the impact on the victim of dangerous factors of electrical nature in production and in everyday life, and for the purpose of research of other dangerous factors, which action or existence does not correspond to regulatory requirements in this field of knowledge.

Tasks of electro-technical examination

The main tasks of electro-technical examination are the establishment with the use of special knowledge of the circumstances and mechanism of occurrence of phenomena, processes in electrical equipment. As well as the circumstances and mechanism of occurrence of phenomena, processes in electrical equipment, to determine the circumstances that preceded it, to establish compliance with regulatory requirements of responsible persons to ensure safe use of electrical equipment, etc.

This are studied both when performing works and operating conditions of facilities, equipment structures, etc., including the compliance of the facility, equipment, process (electrical part), etc. with regulatory requirements (rules) relating to electrical safety, use of electrical equipment.
In view of the above, the tasks of electro-technical examination are aimed at establishing the actual data and circumstances of the event related to the subject of electro-technical examination. These tasks are evaluative, situational, classification and diagnostic. The assessment task is to establish the conformity of electrical appliances, equipment, machinery, etc. to the manufacturer’s stated characteristics, parameters, etc. Situational tasks are to clarify technical phenomena and establish the circumstances associated with the property of the phenomenon under study.

Such tasks include the following:

  • research into the possibility of a certain phenomenon and the existence of a certain circumstance;
  • establishing the circumstances under which specific phenomena occurred;
  • the ability to perform certain actions;
  • determining the method and causes of specific damage;
  • establishing the mechanism of certain actions and the formation of signs, phenomena (traces) of the identified circumstances that led to unregulated modes of operation of electrical equipment, and the phenomena that accompanied these modes.

In the process of solving the classification problem, the affiliation of material (materialized) objects of research in the form of any material formation with available electrical elements, components or its reflection (photographs, video, description, etc.) to a specific standard or special group is determined. The diagnostic task is to establish the condition of the electrical object; identification of changes that occurred as a result of a particular event, establishing the causes and conditions of these changes on the basis of analysis established by the results of research on individual properties and states of interacting objects,
Electro-technical examination is an independent branch of forensic examination, which belongs to the engineering and technical type of examination and differs from other types of research.

The subject of electro-technical examination is the actual data and circumstances of the case or criminal proceedings (events related to the emergence, development and consequences of non-regulatory regimes in the operation of electrical installations or its components, the state of electrical equipment in terms of regulatory compliance), based on special knowledge in the field of electrical engineering. In addition, including circumstances, causal links, between the circumstances that preceded the events or were present during its course and the consequences of the events under study.

In addition, the subject of electro-technical examination includes assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for equipment used for safe work, including personal protective equipment, compliance with regulatory requirements for the actions of persons responsible for compliance with electrical safety requirements, determining the technical condition of elements and systems of electrical equipment.


The following range of issues determines the subject of electro-technical examination:

  • Does the method of execution of electrical equipment correspond to the environment in which it is used?
  • What are the technical characteristics of electrical equipment provided for research?
  • Did the detected malfunctions occur in the electrical equipment provided for testing due to the existing defects of the manufacturer, or did the malfunction of the specified equipment lead to non-compliance with the requirements of the manufacturer?
  • Does the condition of the wiring, electrical equipment of the object submitted for examination meet regulatory requirements?
  • Does the cross section of the current-carrying cores of the power lines correspond to the current load of the electricity consumers connected to this electrical circuit?
  • Do the characteristics of the arranged electrical protection (fuse insert, circuit breaker, etc.) meet the regulatory requirements for the study of the electrical network (electrical circuit)?
  • Do the devices of electrical protection of the section of the electric network (electric circuit) presented for research change and rework the structure? If so, how did this affect its functions?
  • What is the condition of the grounding and lightning protection devices? Did they meet regulatory requirements?
  • Do live parts of electrical equipment have signs of accidents (melting, traces of current overload, short circuit, etc.)?
  • What is the cause of a short circuit in electrical equipment presented for research?
  • What is the mechanism of occurrence and development of the emergency process in the work of electrical installations, electrical equipment, which are provided for research?
  • Did the electrical protection devices work in the event of an emergency operation of the electrical installation? If not, what explains it?
  • Does the connection diagram of the electricity meter of the electricity consumer submitted for research meet the regulatory requirements?
  • Did the electricity consumer connection scheme allow the use of unaccounted electricity (outside the metering device)?
  • Do the technical characteristics of the investigated elements of the electrical installation, electrical appliance correspond to those specified in the electrical diagram of the manufacturer?
  • Is the electrical installation, electrical appliance provided for research in good condition, and if not, what are the causes of failure?
  • Are there any signs of changes, alterations in the components and parts of the electrical protection device, and if so, how did this affect its characteristics?
  • Was the incandescent lamp in good condition at the time of destruction, or did its coil burn out earlier? Did the incandescent bulb damage it was on or off?
  • What is the mechanism of electric shock of the victim?
  • Is the workplace provided, which is submitted for research to the requirements of electrical safety?
  • Is there a workplace that is submitted for research to the requirements for protection against the negative effects of static electricity?
  • Are there any changes in its electrical circuit in the electricity-metering device presented for research, which make it possible to carry out off-metering electricity consumption?
  • Was there an impact, and what factor, on the electricity-metering device that allowed the implementation of off-metering electricity consumption? How did the process of such influence take place?
  • What is the functional purpose of the electrical appliance presented for research?
  • Does the electrical appliance provided for research meet the parameters stated by its manufacturer?
  • Are the actions/inaction of persons (indicate which) in the causal relationship with the occurrence of an accident related to the electric shock of the victim?
  • Are the safety mechanisms of electrical blocking of the equipment from occurrence of dangerous conditions of its functioning in a serviceable condition?
  • Do the design decisions of the facility, design documentation meet the regulatory requirements for the used electrical equipment or electrical equipment?
  • Does the design of the mechanism (equipment, machinery) meet the regulatory requirements (requirements of the rules) for electrical safety?
  • Does the condition of the mechanism (equipment, machinery) meet the regulatory requirements (requirements of the rules) for electrical safety?
  • What is the cause of failure of electric lamps used in lighting fixtures?

Depending on the objects of research, specific circumstances of the investigated event, as well as in the case of assessing the compliance of the object of research with regulatory requirements for electrical safety, other events related to compliance with electrical safety requirements, the examination may be asked other questions, require the use of special expertise.

In particular, during the examination, issues related to the installation, technical condition of electrical equipment, electrical equipment in relation to the requirements of electrical safety, manufactured products, etc. may be resolved.

The object of study may be electrical networks or items of electrical equipment, both domestic and industrial. These objects are analyzed to determine the cause of breakdowns, equipment failure, and the factors that led to the accident, and so on.

Objects of forensic electro-technical examination are material and materialized sources of information that are investigated by experts of the relevant expert specialty in order to establish factual data about the circumstances of the event, which relate to the subject of electro-technical examination. The main objects of examination are electrical installations, those that generate, transport, distribute and consume electricity, as well as its components.

The objects of examination also include information carriers, which contain factual data on the subject of the appointed electro-technical examination – the relevant documents of the case or criminal proceedings. As well as objects of research and documents, conclusions of experts, in particular forensic medical examination, compiled in case of electric shock of people, animals, etc. provided in the prescribed manner by the customer of the examination.

Objects of electrical examination are also: electrical equipment, electrical appliances and their components, electrical wires, cables, electrical protection devices (fuses, circuit breakers), electrical switching devices and more.

The object of such research includes protocols of inspection of the scene, protocols of interrogations, acts drawn up on the results of the work of commissions, instructions and protocols on electrical safety in the organization, institution, etc.More specifically, the objects of study are the following:

  • the place of occurrence of an accident when a person or animal is struck by an electric current, etc.;
  • damaged or undamaged electrical equipment, electrical equipment, electrical appliances and its structural elements, etc.);
  • damaged electrical equipment of machines, mechanisms, vehicles and other elements of technological and other equipment, available on site, which is the object of study, removed from the scene and the removal of which is not possible;
  • damaged and undamaged objects and its remains, which are components of electrical equipment, electrical equipment, etc.;
  • electrical equipment – transformers, lighting, cable systems, electric motors, inverters, pumps (the main parameters of networks, allowable load, stability of systems at allowable voltage fluctuations are investigated);
  • industrial equipment – lines for the production of goods, conveyor belts, stamping equipment, machines, robotic industrial equipment, etc. (determined whether the breakdowns were caused by improper operation of equipment, also other causes of breakdowns and malfunctions);
  • refrigeration equipment – industrial refrigerators, freezers, refrigerators and shops, cold rooms, etc. (the presence of a certain temperature inside refrigerators, the causes of breakdowns, the allowance of loads, etc.);
  • forced ventilation systems, air conditioners, climate control systems (the compliance of the actual capacity with the declared characteristics of the manufacturers, the causes of breakdowns and the occurrence and presence of defects);
  • power supplies.

The objects of the study may be other material objects, which contain information that is the subject of the study of electro-technical examination. The recommended list of issues that can be addressed during the electro-technical examination:

  • Does the method of execution of electrical equipment correspond to the environment in which it is used?
  • What are the technical characteristics of electrical equipment provided for research?
  • Did the detected malfunctions occur in the electrical equipment provided for testing due to the existing defects of the manufacturer, or did the malfunction of the specified equipment lead to non-compliance with the requirements of the manufacturer?
  • Does the condition of the wiring, electrical equipment of the object submitted for examination meet regulatory requirements?
  • Does the cross section of the current-carrying cores of the power lines correspond to the current load of the electricity consumers connected to this electrical circuit?
  • Do the characteristics of the arranged electrical protection (fuse insert, circuit breaker, etc.) meet the regulatory requirements for the study of the electrical network (electrical circuit)?
  • Do the devices of electrical protection of the section of the electric network (electric circuit) presented for research change and rework the structure? If so, how did this affect its functions?
  • What is the condition of the grounding and lightning protection devices? Did they meet regulatory requirements?
  • Do live parts of electrical equipment have signs of accidents (melting, traces of current overload, short circuit, etc.)?
  • What is the cause of a short circuit in electrical equipment presented for research?
  • What is the mechanism of occurrence and development of the emergency process in the operation of electrical installations, electrical equipment, which are presented for research?
  • Did the electrical protection devices work in the event of an emergency operation of the electrical installation? If not, what explains it?
  • Does the connection diagram of the electricity meter of the electricity consumer submitted for research meet the regulatory requirements?
  • Did the electricity consumer connection scheme allow the use of unaccounted electricity (outside the metering device)?
  • Do the technical characteristics of the investigated elements of the electrical installation, electrical appliance correspond to those specified in the electrical diagram of the manufacturer?
  • Is the electrical installation, electrical appliance provided for research in good condition, and if not, what are the causes of failure?
  • Are there any signs of changes, alterations in the components and parts of the electrical protection device, and if so, how did this affect their characteristics?
  • Was the incandescent lamp in good condition at the time of destruction, or did its coil burn out earlier? Did the incandescent bulb damage it was on or off?
  • What is the mechanism of electric shock of the victim?
  • Is the workplace provided, which is submitted for research to the requirements of electrical safety?
  • Is there a workplace that is submitted for research to the requirements for protection against the negative effects of static electricity?
  • Are there any changes in its electrical circuit in the electricity-metering device presented for research, which make it possible to carry out off-metering electricity consumption?
  • Was there an impact, and what factor, on the electricity-metering device that allowed the implementation of off-metering electricity consumption? How did the process of such influence take place?
  • What is the functional purpose of the electrical appliance presented for research?
  • Does the electrical appliance provided for research meet the parameters stated by its manufacturer?
  • Are the actions/inaction of persons (indicate which) in the causal relationship with the occurrence of an accident related to the electric shock of the victim?
  • Are the safety mechanisms of electrical blocking of the equipment from occurrence of dangerous conditions of its functioning in a serviceable condition?
  • Do the design decisions of the facility, design documentation meet the regulatory requirements for the used electrical equipment?
  • Does the design of the mechanism (equipment, machinery) meet the regulatory requirements (requirements of the rules) for electrical safety?
  • Does the condition of the mechanism (equipment, machinery) meet the regulatory requirements (requirements of the rules) for electrical safety?
  • What is the cause of failure of electric lamps used in lighting fixtures?

Issues related to electrical safety and the occurrence of an accident related to the impact of electric current should be addressed during the electro-technical examination or during a comprehensive electro-technical examination and examination of life safety.
Features of appointment of electro-technical examination.

When appointing an electro-technical examination, the person who appoints it must correctly formulate the issues that need to be addressed. The issues to be addressed should be specific and directly related to the events under investigation or clarification of its circumstances, in particular in cases where expert research is conducted.
Often, when virtually no material objects are removed from the scene that is the subject of the study, the expert is provided with case materials, and questions are asked about the cause of failure of electrical equipment, its mechanism, etc. It greatly complicates the work of the expert that he/she, in this case, must analyze the investigative versions and testimony of witnesses, which is on the verge of using special knowledge and assessing the situation in the field of jurisprudence – which the expert is forbidden to do.

Expert conclusions in such cases may not have sufficient probative value. Prior to the appointment of electro-technical examination, it is advisable to consult in advance with a specialist on the selection and wording of issues submitted for examination. It should be borne in mind that the formulation of legal issues that fall outside the competence of the expert is not allowed. Such issues are the question of the presence or absence in the act of a particular person (persons) of a crime or guilt of a particular person (persons). For example, who is to blame for the victim’s electric shock? Did such a person have the right to commit such actions? Is it the fault of such a person in injuring the victim?

Only the investigating authorities and the court carry out legal assessment of the facts of the case (taking into account the objective side of the act). If a person which appointed the examination, the necessary data to assess the actions (inaction) of certain citizens (officials), the questions should be as follows: who is responsible for the safe performance of such electrical work, and what documents it provides? Were there any non-compliance with the rules of electrical safety during the conduct (execution) of something? Was there non-compliance with electrical safety rules (norms, standards, etc.), and if not, by whom, and what was it? In addition, what documents it provides? Were there any non-compliance with the rules of electrical safety during the conduct (execution) of something? Was there non-compliance with electrical safety rules (norms, standards, etc.), and if not, by whom, and what was it? In addition, what documents it provides? Were there any non-compliance with the rules of electrical safety during the conduct (execution) of something? Was there non-compliance with electrical safety rules (norms, standards, etc.), and if not, by whom, and what was it?