Aviation technical examination is an expert study to establish the mechanism and circumstances of an aviation event (incident), the technical condition of aircraft, aeronautical instruments, ground aeronautical equipment, the correctness of measures for the preparation and organization of flights, and other circumstances that contributed or could contribute to aviation event (incident).
Objects of forensic aviation technical examination are aircraft, ground aerodrome equipment, individual parts of aircraft parts, devices and technical means of flight safety, flight documentation, records of crew conversations with the flight director, records of flight recorders, investigation materials and other documents, relating to the studied objects, phenomena and processes.
The subject of forensic aviation technical examination is the actual data on the causes and circumstances of the aviation event (incident), its consequences, and the technical condition of the aircraft, aeronautical instruments, ground aeronautical equipment, and measures taken to prepare and organize flights.
The main tasks of forensic aviation technical examination are to establish the causes and circumstances of aviation events (incidents), to establish the technical condition of aircraft, aeronautical instruments, ground aeronautical equipment, to assess the correctness of measures for the preparation and organization of flights.
During the aviation technical examination, other tasks related to the investigation of aviation events and incidents may be set.
Indicative list of issues to be addressed:
- What is the immediate cause of the aviation incident?
- Does a certain (it is specified which) damage to the aircraft the cause or consequence of the event?
- What shortcomings in the preparation and organization of the flight contributed to the aviation event?
- Were the crew correctly performing certain technical actions (indicate which ones) during the flight?
- Were there any specific (indicating which) actions of the crew in causal connection with the occurrence of the aviation accident?
- In what direction and at what angle did the aircraft fall to the ground?
- What part of the aircraft hit the ground when it fell?
- What part of the aircraft was in contact with a particular object during takeoff?
- From what height did the fall of the aircraft begin?
- What measures were taken by the crew to prevent the incident?
- From which parts (components) did the destruction of the aircraft begin at the time of the event and in what sequence did it take place?
- Was the aircraft in good working order, if not, what was the fault?
- Which of the mechanisms (components, units) failed in flight and what was the failure?
- Was it possible to detect specific (indicate which) faults during the pre-flight inspection?
- Does the aircraft have design flaws, if so, which ones?
- Do the scheduled work performed on the aircraft meet the requirements of regulatory documents?
- Is the aircraft suitable for flight in specific conditions?
- Does the runway and aerodrome equipment meet the conditions of take-off (or landing) of a specific type of aircraft?
- Has the flight been prepared in accordance with regulations?
- Was it possible to avoid the occurrence of the aviation event and what was it?
- Was this flight performed in accordance with the flight safety rules, if there were non-compliances, what exactly and by what person were they allowed?
- Was the aircraft loaded and the cargo placed in it in compliance with the requirements of the rules for loading aircraft, if there were discrepancies, what exactly and to what consequences did it lead?
- Have a person performed any of his / her duties in order to prevent an event, if not, what actions have not been taken?
- What actions and what responsible person should have been performed in preparation for the flight and during the flight to prevent the event?
To establish the mechanism, causes and circumstances of the mechanism of the aviation event (incident), assess the actions of the crew and other persons, establish the possibility of preventing an aviation event (incident) it is necessary to provide documents on the event. These are the investigation materials, aircraft documentation, crewmembers, testimony explanations) of participants and witnesses of the event, videos of the event, etc.
Determination of the technical condition of aircraft, aeronautical devices, ground aeronautical equipment is carried out by inspecting them, it is necessary to provide technical documentation for them. In the case of research on a certain past date, documents are required that contain information about the technical condition of these objects, photographs showing the actual condition of the object, etc.
To address the full range of issues raised to determine the cause of the accident, it is advisable to involve specialists in the field of aviation of the appropriate qualification.